The 21st meeting of the Fund Committee in Bahrain in October 2018 launched the process of rebuilding the Green Fund, which ended with the refuelling conference organized by France on 24 and 25 October 2019. Thanks to the mobilization of France, 28 countries contributed to this new mobilization for the period 2020-2023 with 9.8 billion dollars. But we are still making progress. The OECD pointed out that in 2016, northern countries jointly signed a cheque for $58.6 billion. Although the NDC of each contracting party is not legally binding, the contracting parties have a legal obligation to monitor their progress through expert technical reviews to assess performance towards the NDC and to find ways to strengthen ambitions.  Article 13 of the Paris Agreement establishes an “enhanced transparency framework for measures and support” that sets harmonised monitoring, reporting and verification (LVR) requirements. As a result, industrialized and developing countries must report every two years on their efforts to combat climate change, and all parties will be subject to technical and peer review.  It is therefore not surprising that the world`s least developed countries have been abandoned several times. In 2015, they received only 30% of international public climate funding. One of us (Sennan) went through every project approved by the Green Climate Fund, and he realized that it was also part of this scheme – only 18% of the funds went to projects in the poorest countries, while 65% was spent on projects in middle-income countries such as Mexico or India.
“The share of subsidies in public climate finance in 2016-17 is higher for least developed countries (36%) and small island developing states (54%) as for all developing countries (24%), says the OECD press release on the report. At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  Home > Global Climate > Climate > Climate Change Financing The dilemma facing the poorest nations is clearly seen in countries such as Ghana. To meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement, the West African country will need to mobilize nearly $22.6 billion in investment over the next 10 years. The government is expected to demand more than $5 billion from the Green Climate Fund. According to a report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published on Friday (September 13th), “the funding made available and mobilized by developed countries for climate action in developing countries has been increased to $71.2 billion in 2017.” Another key difference between the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol is its scope. While the Kyoto Protocol distinguishes between Schedule 1 countries and those not annexed to Schedule 1, this branch is scrambled in the Paris Agreement, as all parties must submit emission reduction plans.  While the Paris Agreement continues to emphasize the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities” – the recognition that different nations have different capacities and duties to combat climate change – it does not offer a specific separation between developed and developing countries.  It therefore appears that negotiators will have to continue to address this issue in future rounds of negotiations, although the debate on differentiation could take on a new dynamic.  The latest “One Planet” event on the sidelines of the Green Fund resupply conference in Paris (24 and 25 October) has mobilized the international community. The event showcased the new avenues of “mixed funding” and the Green Fund was recapitalized to the level of nearly $10 billion expected by the President.
The funding debate will be “blocked on the